A PERUVIAN INCUNABLE — In Spanish, Quechua, & Aymara from
the Press of“Antonio Ricardo, primer impressor en estos Reynos del Piru”
Acosta, José de; Juan de Atienza (attrib. authors). Tercero cathecismo y exposicion de la doctrina christiana, por sermones. Para que los curas y otros ministros prediquen y enseñen a los Yndios y a las demas personas. Impresso ... en la Ciudad delos Reyes [i.e., Lima]: Por Antonio Ricardo, 1585. Small 4to in 8s (20.5 cm; 8.125"). [7 of 8], 215 ff., lacking title-leaf (supplied in facsimile) & final blank; 13 ff. supplied from another, shorter, copy.
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Following the fall of the Inca Empire to Pizarro and his men, theshaping of a new social order began but was complicated by a civil war between two factions of the conquering Spaniards. Nonetheless, the development of one of the preeminent colonies of the Spanish empire, there in the coastal and Andean regions of the west coast of South America, progressed at a steady pace.
The society that developed in Peru, as in Mexico, Guatemala, and elsewhere in the Spanish New World, was one ofparallel social systems governed by Spanish laws and royal appointed officials; the Spaniards transplanted their traditional social system from Iberia and the indigenous population maintained its own in modified form. Carefully nurtured points of commonality and interchange ensured that while the populations and cultures were essentially separate, the indigenous one did not develop beliefs and practices that would be in conflict with those of the dominant Hispanic culture.
To this endit was necessary for there to be individuals in both societies who were fluent in each other's languages and could assist in legal, religious, and social matters. In Spanish society one principal group whose members were expected to learn either Quechua or Aymara, the two principal languages of the Inca empire, were the Catholic missionaries. But works in either of those languages were slow to appear in print andthe number of works in Peruvian indigenous languages printed in the 16th century lagged far behind the number of works in the languages of Mexico. The first two works in the languages of Peru were printed in Europe only in 1560. No more works appeared until 1584 and then they were printed in Peru itself.
In that yearAntonio Ricardo printed the first book in South America, the Doctrina christiana y catecismo para instruccion de los Indios. Antonio Ricardo was an Italian who began working as a printer in Mexico in 1570 in the shops of other printers, almost certainly principally in that of Pedro Ocharte. In 1577 he became the fifth independent printer in the New World but operated under his own name only until 1579, during which time he worked closely with the Jesuits and printed books for students at the Society of Jesus' Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo; at the urging of the Society he left Mexico in 1580 to establish his press in Peru. There, however, because of a dispute between the Jesuits and the viceroy, he did not receive license to print until 1584, when the first thing he printed, at the insistence of the viceroy, was a four-page explanation of the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. This was quickly followed bythree tri-lingual books in Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara, all works by members of the Society of Jesus. The Tercero cathecismo is only the third book printed in South America and it shows Ricardo as aware and proud of his position as the first printer in South America. He pointedly identified himself as such on the book's title-page: “Antonio Ricardo, primer impressor en estos Reynos del Piru.”
The Tercero cathecismo's importance is multifaceted and goes far beyond its place as an icon in American printing history, for it provided doctrinally approved sermons both for those priests serving the Spanish population who were less than proficient sermonizers and also, specifically, for thosepriests and missionaries working among the indigenous population whose command of Quechua and/or Aymara was not sufficient for them to be safe and fluent deliverers of the word of God and instruction in Christian ethics and practices. Modern study of these sermons additionally considers which indigenous terms were used to convey European concepts (precursor to the Chinese rites controversy of the late 17th century Jesuit missionaries in China), which Spanish words became loan words in Quechua and Aymara, what indigenous practices were of concern to the religious authorities, and of course which dialect of each language was chosen to be the norm of proselytization.
Ricardo was fond of printing his texts witha mix of type faces and a wide variety of large woodcut initials. The inventory of the type, ornamental letters, woodcut illustrations, etc., that he owned when he sold the press shows that he had amassed huge quantities of all of those elements of the black art. (The inventory is in the Manuscript Division of the New York Public Library, the gift of Edward Harkness.) The Tercero cathecismo prints the Spanish text in italic and the indigenous-language texts in roman, with the Spanish printed margin to margin at the top of the pages and the Quechua and Aymara below it in parallel columns to the left and right respectively. And yes, there is goodly use of several woodcut headpieces, many large woodcut initials (some historiated); curiously, no tailpieces.
Provenance: 18th-century ownership inscription in an upper margin of the library of Colegio de Santa Rosa; which one, not clear.
As one would expect of any book that was among the first productions of a press in a remote region, the Tercero cathecismo is a rare book. Searches of NUC Pre-1956, WorldCat, COPAC, CCPBE, and KVK locate only eight U.S., four European, and two South American libraries reporting ownership. However, we know of one other U.S. and one other European library owning copies.
Backer-Sommervogel, I, 34; Sabin 94838; Medina, Lima, 3; Vargas Ugarte, Impresos peruanos, 3; Johnson, The Book in the Americas, 34; Medina, Lenguas quechua y aymará, 4; Viñaza 81. Recased in possibly original limp vellum; new free endpapers and fly-leaves; evidence of long-gone ties. Title-page in facsimile. Thirteen leaves supplied from a shorter copy (ff. 57, 138, 143, 146, 151, 135, 160, 161, 168, 186, 191, 194, 199); heavy staining to ca. fol. 25 and again at the end, other staining scattered. Worming, mostly pinhole but some meander, with loss of letters, parts of words, and occasionally whole words, seldom with injury to reading; a few leaves with repaired margins and repairs to wormed areas.Obviously a sophisticated copy and one that has seen hardships, nonetheless, a copy ready to repay ownership and study. (36505)
Splendid Ceremony for a Sad Remembrance, with thePLATE
Alvitez, Alejo de. Puntual descripcion, funebre lamento, y sumptuoso tumulo, de la regia doliente pompa, con que en la Santa Iglesia Metropolitana de la Ciudad de los Reyes, Lima, corte de la America Austral, mando solemnizar las reales exequias de la serenissima señora, la señora doña Mariana Josepha de Austria, reyna fidelissima de Portugal, y de los Algarves, el dia 15. de marzo de 1756. [Lima: Juan Jose Gonzalez de Cossio, 1757]. 4to (20.5 cm; 8").  ff., 79, [1 (blank)], 80–237 pp., ,  ff., fold. plate, illus.
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Very special ceremonies commemorated the death of a king or a queen. In Lima at the midpoint of the 18th century news arrived in the viceregal capital of the passing of Queen Maria Anna Josefa (1683–1754), consort of John V, King of Portugal. She died on 14 August and plans were immediately proposed for commemorating her life and death when the news arrived in Peru in the early months of 1755.
Poems were solicited, designs for the ceremonial cenotaph were proposed, special events were planned, a sermon-giver was selected: And this volume was printed to tell later generations about those events as they were eventually accomplished on 15 March 1756. We learn from the volume who the special dignitaries were, who said what, and what the processions and the order of the marchers were; and we are given a detailed description of the cenotaph, its ornaments, and the texts of the poems and epigrams (chiefly on pp. 80 through 237) recited. The editor, Alvitez, was a Franciscan.
Fray Francisco Ponze de Leon, a Mercedarian, chief regent of the Royal University of San Marcos, gave the “Oracion funebre, que a la memoria de la fidelissima señora doña Mariana Josepha de Austria,” which occupies the final 49 leaves here.
Fray Antonio de Contreras, another Mercedarian, engraved the likeness of the elaborate cenotaph that the viceroy had constructed for the day honoring the late queen.The plate is large and folding.
The poems are romances, redondillas, sonnets, decimas, etc. One poem is even an example of concrete poetry and two others are in Portuguese! (by Antonio Alberto, and Juan Julian Capetillo de la Sota, who also supplied a poem in ENGLISH). The poets include Viceroy Jose Manso de Velasco; Nicolás Sarmiento de Sotomayor y los Ríos del Campo, IV conde del Portillo; various other nobles; and one woman, Josefa Brava de Lagunas y Villela.
Provenance: 19th-century bookplate of Guillermo Miguel Irarrazabal.
The number of “splendid ceremonies” books produced in colonial Peru is small: There is no census but we suspect the number to be fewer than nine.
Searches of NUC and WoldCat find only five copies in U.S. libraries, not all of them complete with the plate. Searches of WorldCat, COPAC, CCPB, and KVK locate only 4 other copies worldwide.
Medina, Lima, 1103; Vargas Ugarte, Impresos peruanos, 1736. Contemporary limp vellum, lacking ties. Unidentified rubber-stamp on front free endpaper (smudged, indistinct). Repair to rear free endpaper and small repair to folding plate. Clean, crisp, unwormed. A very good copy. (34629)
A Lotta Moneyon the Line
Arias de Saavedra, Francisco. Manifestacion de los derechos de la menor dona Grimaneza de la Puente en el juicio que en segunda instancia; ha promovido en esta real audiencia, con el Señor Marques de Corpa oydor de ella: sobre el entero de la dote de la Marquesa de la Puente su hija finada, para que se reforme la sentencia de vista declaratoria de la simulacion del instrumento dotal. Lima: En la Imprenta Real de los Niños Expósitos, 1793. Small 4to (21 cm; 8.25").  ff., 175, [1 (blank)] pp., [1 (errata)] f.
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A complicated matter of thedowry of Marquesa de la Puente, a member of one of the richest and most important families of Peru in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Provenance: Bookplate of the Clements Library, properly deaccessioned.
An interesting production of the “Orphans' Press” of Lima.
Medina, Lima, 1764; Vargas Ugarte, Impresos peruanos, 2645. Early decorative wrappers bound into 20th-century gray cloth binding; old, somewhat inexplicable stamp (in English) to front wrapper. A very good copy, complete with the errata leaf. (35488)
A Liberal Panamanian Politician in the Holy Land
Arosemena, Domingo. Sensaciones en oriente, o, impresiones bíblicas de un granadino en la Tierra Santa. Nueva York: Imprenta de Robert Craighead, 1859. 8vo (19.5 cm, 7.75"). Frontis. port., viii, 373, [1 (blank)] pp.
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A native of the Panamanian isthmus, Arosemena studied canon law in the 1840s at the Seminario Conciliar Aquidiocesano in Bogota and later continued his studies in Rome. In the early 1850s he served as a Liberal politician, at home; and in 1855 he decided to be one of the first Colombians, if not the first, to write an account of travel to the Middle East and more particularly to the Holy Land — so he set out from Paris to do just that.
Why his account was printed in New York is not explained, butit is probable that he was in exile. There seems to be no other edition of the work. One suspects Arosemena bore all of the publication costs, meaning the print run was small, chiefly for friends, family, and a few others. This would also explain why only five U.S. (NYPL, UChicago, UKansas, Harvard, Vanderbilt) and seven foreign institutions (Oxford, Universidad Pontifica del Peru, British Library, Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve, Institute Catholique de Paris, the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut, and the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia) report ownership of the work (as per WorldCat).
Not in Palau. Publisher's blind-embossed brown bead-textured cloth, covers with central oval containing a blind-stamped kneeling figure (which it is tempting to see as Christ in the Garden of Gethsemene); spine faded. A label carelessly removed from front free endpaper. Light foxing to fore-edges. Otherwise, very good. (38585)
On Private Worship: An Oratory in One's Home
Baquero, Francisco de Paula. Disertacion apologetica a favor del privilegio, que por costumbre introducida por la Bula de la santa cruzada goza la Nacion Española en el uso de los oratorios domesticos, leida, en la Real Academia de buenas letras de Sevilla en 25. de octubre de 1771. En Sevilla: Por D. Josef Padrino, [colophon, 1777]. Small 4to (18.5 cm; 7.25").  f., 104 pp.
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Our author was the “cura mas antiguo del Sagrario de [Sevilla], examinador Synodal de su arzobispado, comisario y revisor de libros del Santo Oficio, academico numerario,” and the “censor de dicha Real Academia.” His work was first read before the Real Academia on 25 October 1771 but because of delays in obtaining the necessary licenses to print it, publication was delayed until 1777.
In this work of canon law and Catholic Church customs and practices, Baquero studies the privilege that the Bull of the Holy Crusade granted the Spanish nation regarding oratories in private residences; it applied not only to Spain but to colonies as well.
The first of three, this edition was published by “un amigo del author.” The other editions appeared in 1781 AND 1861.
Only one U.S. library reports ownership of either the 1777 or 1781 edition. It should be noted that there is NO 1771 edition, despite Palau and online cataloguing; cataloguers have simply failed to look at the last page of the supposed 1771 edition to see that the colophon is dated 1777.
This offers one very pretty large initial and some modestly nice work with type ornaments.
Palau 23499 (giving wrong date of publication). Contemporary limp vellum, a bit missing from back cover; evidence of ties, and binding with light dust-soiling. Lacking rear free endpaper. A clean, nice copy. (29596)
Early ABS Spanish New Testament — A Controversial Translation
Bible. N.T. Spanish. 1823. Scio de S. Miguel. El Nuevo Testamento de nuestro señor Jesu Cristo, traducido de la Biblia Vulgata Latina. Nueva York: Estereotipa por Elihu White a costa de la Sociedad Americana de la Biblia, 1823. 12mo (18 cm, 7"). 376 pp.
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This is an early reprint (the 7th edition, the 5th through 9th editions all appearing in 1823) of the 1819 edition of the New Testament in Spanish published by the American Bible Society, which was the first printing in Spanish of any portion of the Bible in the New World. To avoid controversy, and to appeal to Catholics, a translation approved for use in the Catholic Church was employed. This resulted in some criticism from the ABS's Protestant base, but proved a successful strategy toget the Scriptures into the hands of Spanish speakers in the newly independent nations south of the U.S.
Darlow & Moule 8495; Shoemaker 11841; not in O'Callaghan; not in O'Callaghan, Supplement,. Contemporary sheep, spine with gilt rules and tiny remnant of black leather title label; some rubbing and abrasions, spine leather with fine cracks. Waterstaining, sometimes nearly invisible, other times noticeable; scattered foxing and browning throughout. A solid, sound copy of a text that was a bit of a landmark for the ABS. (35158)
“Volad a las Fronteras del Peru y Esperad alla la Hora de la Vindieta”
Bolívar, Simón. Broadside. Begins: Proclama. Simon Bolivar libertador presidente de Colombia & & &. A los pueblos del sur. Ciudadanos y soldados! La pefidia del gobierno del Peru ha pasado todos los limites ... Bogotá: No publisher/printer, 1828. Folio (31.3 cm; 12.25").  p.
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“The Liberator” condemns the actions — the “limitless perfidy” — of the government of Peru and announces the beginning of the first international war on South American soil. This pitted Peru against Gran Colombia and was an attempted land grab by Peru, wanting to wrench Bolivia from orbit of Gran Colombia. Greatly displeased with Peru's invasion of the nation named after him, in which he had been the first president, and which was guarded by forces from the Colombia of which he was presently president, Bolivar in this proclamation of 3 July mobilized his army.
Coincidentally, and unknown to him, also on 3 July, Peru officially declared war on Gran Colombia.
Searches of NUC, WorldCat, CCILA, and COPAC fail to locate any copies.
Not in Posada. Tattered at the edges with tears and small pieces of paper missing; old repairs on the verso where a fold tear and another exist; small stains to upper margin, with light age-toning and a very little foxing. Housed in a quarter red morocco clamshell case. Very good. (34168)
A Reluctant Dictator
Bolívar, Simón. Broadside. Begins: Simon Bolivar libertador presidente de Colombia & & &. Colombianos! Las voluntades públicas se habian espresado enerjicamente por las reformas políticas de la nacion ... Bogota: No publisher/printer], 1828. Folio (29.2 cm; 11.5").  p.
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In August of 1828 Bolivar was 45 years old, weary, and would be dead in two years. He had freed or helped free much of South America from Spain, served as president of Bolivia (12 August 1825 – 29 December 1825) and Peru (8 February 1824 – 28 January 1827), and was president of federation of Gran Colombia (17 December 1819 – 4 May 1830). He believed in democracy and republicanism and in that summer of 1828 was frustrated that the Constitutional Convention he had called expecting it to write a strong centralist document that would satisfy the demands of the emerging separatist and extremely regional sentiments of the Venezuelans and others had failed. Because of the Convention's collapse, via this document, dated 27 August, Bolivar declared himself dictator rather than president.
In doing so he pledge to his people that he obligated himself “to strictly obey your legitimate wants: I will protect your sacred religion as the faith of all Colombians and the code of all good men; I will make justice the first law of all transactions and the universal guarantee of our citizens.”
The promise of liberty is strangely addressed: “I will not say anything to you about liberty because if I fulfill my promises you will be more than free — you will be respected.”
Searches of WorldCat, COPAC, CCILA, Catálogo Colectivo del Patrimonio Bibliográfico, the OPACs of the Bibliotecas Nacionales de Colombia and Venezuela locate one copy in the U.S. and possibly three in the BNC and probably none in the BNV.
Posada 1042. Removed from a bound volume and irregular along the left margin; without the integral blank. Eight wormholes in text but not costing any letters. Now housed in a quarter red morocco clamshell box, round spine, raised bands with gilt accenting. A good++ copy. (34097)
Their Judgment: FARCICAL Process, BUT
Enforceable Policy . . .
Bolivia. Treaties. 1842. Manuscript Document Signed. Sucre, 10 December 1842. On paper, in Spanish. Folio, 3½ pp.
The official, signed report of the Presidential Committee appointed to investigate the just-concluded "treaty of peace, commerce and navigation" with Great Britain. The report observes: "The present treaty is, letter for letter, the same as that concluded in 1837 in Lima by the Proctor of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation, and the same, also, bearing the date of 30 May 1838 that the Extraordinary Bolivian Congress (meeting in Cochabamba) approved" (our translation). With five members dissenting, the committee decides that the method of congressional approval, though "farcical," was legal and binding.
Bearing signatures, among others, of Pedro Buitrago, Narciso Dulón, Eusebio Gutiérrez, M. de la Cruz Méndez, José M. Dalence, and Manuel Sagarnaga.
Very good condition. Two small tears at folds, not affecting text. (3107)
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